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Water pump 

 ▶ A pump is a mechanical device used to move fluids, such as liquids, gases or slurries by pressure or suction 
 ▶  Main purposes of Pumps

      • Transfer of liquid from one place to another place (e.g. water from an underground aquifer into a water storage tank)

      • Circulate liquid around a system (e.g. cooling water or lubricants through machines and equipment)


(Pumps of Desalination Plant)


contents_img  Classified by operating principle


contents_img Types of Water pump 


  Centrifugal pump

    -  A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure and flow rate of a 
        fluid. Centrifugal pumps are the most common type of pump used to move liquids through a piping system. The fluid 
        enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially 
        outward or axially  into a diffuser or volute chamber, from where it exits into the downstream piping system.
       Centrifugal pumps are typically used for large discharge through smaller heads.
    -  Volute Pump, Turbine Pump

    -  Radial flow pumps,  Axial flow pumps,  Mixed flow pumps 
    -  single stage pump multi stage pump


(Centrifugal pump)


      •  The volute of a centrifugal pump is the casing that receives the fluid being pumped by the impeller, slowing down 
          the fluid's rate of flow. A volute is a curved funnel that increases in area as it approaches the discharge port. 
          The volute converts kinetic energy into pressure by reducing speed while increasing pressure, helping to balance 
          the hydraulic pressure on the shaft of the pump.

      •  A turbine pump is a centrifugal pump that is mainly used to pump water from deep wells or other underground and 
         man-made bodes of water to water distribution systems. A centrifugal pump consists of a pump shaft, a rotating 
         device known as an impeller, and a motor or an engine. A turbine pump may consist of multiple semi-open or 
         enclosed impellers, also known as "stages." A metal plate called shroud supports the vanes of the impeller in an 
         open or semi-open impeller, whereas in an enclosed impeller, the shroud encloses the impeller vanes. The turbine 
         pump also consists of a water intake point and a water discharge point.
      •  Radial flow pumps Often simply referred to as centrifugal pumps. The fluid enters along the axial plane, is 
         accelerated by the impeller and exits at right angles to the shaft (radially). Radial flow pumps operate at higher
         pressures and lower flow rates than axial and mixed flow pumps.

      •  Axial flow pumps differ from radial flow in that the fluid enters and exits along the same direction parallel to the 
         rotating shaft. The fluid is not accelerated but instead "lifted" by the action of the impeller. They may be likened to 
         a propeller spinning in a length of tube. Axial flow pumps operate at much lower pressures and higher flow rates 
         than radial flow pumps.

      •  Mixed flow pumps, as the name suggests, function as a compromise between radial and axial flow pumps, the 
         fluid experiences both radial acceleration and lift and exits the impeller somewhere between 0?90 degrees from 
         the axial direction. As a consequence mixed flow pumps operate at higher pressures than axial flow pumps while
         delivering higher discharges than radial flow pumps. The exit angle of the flow dictates the pressure 
         head-discharge characteristic in relation to radial and mixed flow.


 ▶ Reciprocating pump

   -  A reciprocating pump is a positive plunger pump. It is often used where relatively small quantity of liquid is to be 
      handled and where delivery pressure is quite large.

    • A plunger pump is a type of positive displacement pump where the high-pressure seal is stationary and a smooth
       cylindrical plunger slides through the seal. This makes them different from piston pumps and allows them to be 
       used at high pressures. This type of pump is often used to transfer municipal and industrial sewage.

    • A piston pump is a type of positive displacement pump where the high-pressure seal reciprocates with the piston.

       Piston pumps can be used to move liquids or compress gases.


 (Plunger Pump and Piston Pump)


    • A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial 
       vacuum. The first vacuum pump was invented in 1650 by Otto von Guericke, and was preceded by the suction 
       pump, which dates to antiquity.



 (Vacuum Pump)


    • A diaphragm pump is a positive displacement pump that uses a combination of the reciprocating action of a rubber,
       hermoplastic or teflon diaphragm and suitable non-return check valves to pump a fluid. Sometimes this type of 
       pump is also called a membrane pump.


(Diaphragm pump)


contents_img Water Hammer 

    • Water hammer is a pressure surge or wave resulting when a fluid in motion is forced to stop or change direction 
      suddenly (momentum change). Water hammer commonly occurs when a valve is closed 
suddenly at an end of a 
      pipeline system, and a pressure wave propagates in the pipe. It may also be 
known as hydraulic shock. 



( Water Hammer Phenomenon in pipelines )


    ※  Consider a long pipe AB : Connected at one end to a reservoir containing water at a height H from the center of the pipe. 
At the other end of the pipe, a valve to regulate the flow of water is provided.

      -  If the valve is suddenly closed, the flowing water will be obstructed and momentum will be destroyed and consequently a 
         wave of high pressure will be created which travels back and forth starting at the valve, traveling to the reservoir, and 
         returning back to the valve and so on.



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[KSB Korea] RO Process 별 적용되는 KSB Pump 관련자료 2015-06-06
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